The Eleventh General Conference: Towards a Civilized Project for the
Renaissance of the Muslim
Human Rights And Women's Rights In Islam
Human Rights And Women's Rights In Islam
As Part Of
The Renaissance Of The Islamic World
Iris Safwat, M.A.(x)
In the history of mankind the idea of human rights is comparatively young ;
as a fruit of the European Enlightenment it found its final shape in the Declaration
of the Rights of Man (Declaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen) at the
beginning of the French Revolution in 1789, while the Virginia Bill of Rights, the
first declaration of human rights, was established firmly in the Constitution of
North America as soon as 1776.
The inalienable rights of man are based on his dignity and protect his life,
freedom and security, his freedom of religion and opinion, as well as his family,
property, job, and civil rights. These basic rights are solely limited by other
people's rights and by the ethical demand found in all religions, that we should
treat others as we ourselves wish to be treated.
In 1948, after two devastating world wars, all basic human rights were
confirmed in the United Nation's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which
was ratified by most countries of the world, including almost all Islamic member
states of the UN at that time.
Moreover, the additional human rights declaration of 1955 on civil, political,
economic, social and cultural rights, as well as the Convention for the Elimination
of all Kinds of Racial Discrimination of 1966 were ratified by the Islamic member
states of the UN.
Despite the universality of the UN Declaration of Human Rights, in recent
years it has become a controversial matter in many countries of the Third World
where it is felt that the concept of human rights has been used for supporting the
West's claim to superiority.
Muslim nations are in fear of a new form of Western colonialism under the
guise of human rights, which might force them to accept Western values and life
On the other hand, in the West, Islam has been depicted as antagonistic to
human rights. Main point of accusation are the position of women and non-Islamic
minorities in Islamic states, as well as the capital punishments prescribed by the
Unfortunately, Western media is engaged in spreading distortion and
prejudices against Islamic Law, to such an extent that e.g. some journalists have
translated the term "Fatwa" with "death-sentence"! (1)
In European and North American media, the word "Shari'a" has become a
thoroughly negative term associated with the suffering of Muslim women and non-
Muslim minorities in Islamic countries.
For this reason it is extremely important to throw some light on the Islamic
concept of human rights as it is derived from the primary sources: the Holy Qur'an
and the Sunna, the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), as found in the
(x) Member of The International Islamic Committee for Women and Child of
The International Islamic Council for Da'wa and Relief, Cairo/Egypt.
1. The Islamic Concept of Human Rights
For fourteen centuries, the basic rights of human beings have been
guaranteed by Islam, and through deduction from principles found in the Holy
Qur'an, human rights have been integrated in the branches of the Shari'a Law.
According to the Holy Qur'an, God has installed man as His viceroy on
earth where he should fulfil His divine will. (2nd Sura, Verse 28). God has given
inviolable dignity to both, man and woman.
All human beings are equal before their Creator, as Prophet Muhammad
(PBUH) declared in his farewell sermon in the year 632 AD: "An Arab is not
superior to a non-Arab, nor is a non-Arab superior to an Arab; a black man is not
superior to a white one, nor is a white man superior to a black one, except through
piety. All human beings are descended from Adam, and Adam is made from dust ... Oh
you people, verily your blood, your property and your honour are inviolable until you
face your Lord".
The right to life is guaranteed in the 5th Sura "The Table Spread", verse 32.
With reference to the story of Cain and Abel, murder is condemned as horrible
On that account: We ordained/ For the Children of Israel/ That if any one
slew/ A person-unless it be/ For murder or for spreading/ Mischief in the land-/ It
would be as if/ He slew the whole people:/ And if any one saved a life. It would be as
if he saved/ The life of the whole people.(2)
The right to justice is established firmly in the 4th Sura "The Women", verse
135 "O ye who believe!/Stand out firmly/ For justice, as witnesses/ To Allah, even
against/ Yourselves, or your parents,/ Or your kin, and whether/ It be (against) rich
or poor/ For Allah can best protect both/ Follow not the lusts/ (Of your hearts) lest
ye/ Swerve, and if ye/ Distort justice) or decline/ To do justice, verily/ Allah is well
acquainted/ With all that ye do".
The right to freedom of religion and conscience is granted by the Holy
Qur'an in the 2nd Sura "The Cow", verse 256: "Let there be no compulsion/ In
religion: Truth stands out/ clear from error What regards other basic human
rights, as the rights to protection of one's honour and of the privacy of one's home,
as well as the rights to freedom of movement and residence, to asylum and to a fair
trial, all these can be derived from the Qur'an and the Sunna. Civil rights to
participation in the social life of one's country and to political participation are
guaranteed by the primary texts of Islam, too, and the same applies to the rights to
protection ownership of property, to marriage and protection of the family, to
work, fair wages and education. In the Islamic context, human rights as all other
rights and duties, have been instituted by God, and cannot be changed by any
mundane power. The Shari'a constitutes the basis of human rights in contemporary
Islamic declarations of human rights as for example in "The Cairo Declaration on
Human Rights in Islam" of The Organization of the Islamic Conference, adopted in
Cairo on 5th August 1990. The OIC consists of fifty-five member states with a
majority of Muslim inhabitants, and was founded in Jeddah. Saudi Arabia, in
Article 6 of the "Cairo Declaration" states that "Woman is equal to man in
human dignity" (4)
This may lead us to a short illustration of the position of women in Islam.
2. The Position Of Women In Islam
a) Spiritual Role
According to the Holy Qur'an man and woman were created from one soul
"Oh mankind ! We created/ You from a single (pair)/ Of a male and a female/ And
made you into/ Nations and tribes, that/ Ye may know each other/ Not that ye may
despise/ (Each other) ...
In the 49th Sura "The Chamber", Verse 13, as well as in the 4th Sura "The
Women", Verse I, we read "O mankind! Fear/ Your Guardian Lord./ Who created
you/ From a single Spirit./ Created out of it,/ His mate, and from them twain/
Scattered (like seeds)! Countless men and women....
Consequently, woman does not belong to a lower species not is she inferior
to man. Moreover, Eve is not to be blamed alone for Man's Fall, since both, Adam
and Eve, were tempted by the devil (Satan), and committed the First Sin (2nd Sura,
verses 35 and 36).
Gender equality in Islam is illustrated by the Quranic statement that man
as well as woman are equally responsible for their deeds and intentions and will
have to answer for them on the Day of Judgement. Consequently, woman has free
choice and liberty of conscience that cannot be taken from her by anybody.
Both genders are under equal ethical and religious obligations and enjoy
equal rewards 33th Sura, "The Conferates", verse 35, states: "For Muslim men and
women, -/ For believing men and women,/ For devout men and women,/ For true
men and women,/ For men and women who are/ Patient and constant, for men/
And women who humble themselves,/ For men and women who give/ In charity, for
men and women/ Who fast/ For men and women who/ Guard their chastity, and
For men and women who/ Engage much in Allah's remembrance,/ For them has
Allah prepared/ Forgiveness and great award."
In Sura 4, "The Women", Verse 124, we read:
"If any do deeds/ Of righteousness/ Be they male or female-/ And have
faith,/ They will enter Heaven,/ And not the least injustice/ Will be done to them/ As
believer, woman is equal to man, and will get equal reward in the life to come.
But it cannot be denied that there exist basic biological differences between
man and woman. In emotional and psychological matters, a certain polarity
between the two genders may occur. They are meant to complete each other, not to
compete with each other. In gender relationship, equality of rights and
responsibilities does not always mean complete identity. Equality would be
desirable but sameness would not be fair. Woman should not be seen as a mere
duplicate of man, and for this reason, her status is not completely identical with his
in Islam, which gives her equal rights that, however, are not always identical
In a system of formal gender equality, as it is aspired by Western feminist, it
would be difficult for women to fulfil their reproductive role which creates special
needs. In this context, Islam treats them more generously and protects their human
rights. Since women play a central role in child raising, Islam burdens men with the
role of supporting their families economically. (6)
According to Islamic views, the ideal gender relationship is based on the
principle of mutual responsibility and cooperation.
(b) Muslim Women's Roles and Rights in the Family Following Islamic
teachings, every child is entitled to treatment, proper care and education
consequently, girl, enjoy equal rights with boys. Naturally, this demand has been
difficult to realize in societies where female prosperity was not desirable, as among
the Arabs (16th Sura, "The Bee" verse 57-60). The Holy Qur'an has prohibited
infanticide, a wide-spread practice in pagan Arabia, and declared that every child
has a right to life(7).
On the other hand other harmful practices deeply rooted in local customs
and traditions, as female genital mutilation (FGM) cannot be associated with
Islamic religion. This ancient African custom is not practiced in important Islamic
countries as Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Algeria and Morocco.(8)
Moreover, this custom is not mentioned in the Qur'an and the Prophet himself
(PBUH) did not practice it with his daughters. (9)
Following the famous Hadith: "Seeking knowledge is compulsory for every
Muslim" (related by Anas Ibn Malik), the education of girls plays an important
role in Islam, as stated by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH): "If one has three
daughters or three sisters, or two daughters or two sisters and he educates them
and treats them well, he will go to Paradise. (Al-Tirmidhi).
All levels of education are open to girls: from nursery schools to universities,
as well as all branches of knowledge and academic specializations.
When a girl has grown up, and her father or guardian wants to give her
away for marriage, he has to obtain her consent. In no case is he allowed to
override her objection and to force her into an unwanted marriage. But if such an
enforced marriage is contracted the young woman can ask for the annulment of it,
as is illustrated by two Traditions of the Prophet (PBUH): "Ibn Gender equality in
Islam is illustrated by the Quranic statement that man as well as woman are
equally responsible for their deeds and intentions and will have to answer for them
on the Day of Judgement. Consequently, woman has free choice and liberty of
conscience that cannot be taken from her by anybody.
Abbas reported that a girl came to the Messenger of Allah, and she
reported that her father had forced her to marry without her consent. The
Messenger of God gave her the choice ... (between accepting the marriage or
invalidating it). Another version of the report states that "the girl said:" Actually, I
accept this marriage, but I wanted to let women know that parents have no right to
force a husband on them".(Lo) In Islam, everybody's right to marry is strongly
supported, and marriage constitutes a serious commitment based on a civil contract
which is written in the presence of two witnesses. The bride is given a marital gift
(dower or dowry) by the bridegroom according to her parents' social and
economical standards. This dower becomes her property and serves as a means of
A husband does not have the right to take any of his wife's property without
It is worth mentioning that a woman's right to own property and to inherit
meant, a revolutionary innovation brought about by Islam as early as fourteen
centuries ago. Her independent legal status is illustrated further by the fact that she
keeps her maiden name after marriage.
Whereas the wife does not have any financial obligations, it is the husband's
main duty to maintain her, and to provide her with food, housing, clothing, etc.
After arrival of children, he is responsible for them, too.
According to some scholars, the wife "is under no legal obligation to do the
routine house work, although she may do so, and usually does, for some reason or
the other..." The husband should provide" for the of help and service to which his
wife was used before marriage"... (11)
Again the Prophet's (PBUH) example makes evident that he was used to
doing some of the housework himself.
A husband should treat his wife with kindness and may not inflict any harm
on her, following the Hadith: "That the best Muslim is one who is best to his family,
and that the greatest, most blessed joy in life is a good righteous wife"... (12)
A Muslim is not allowed to curse or insult his wife, and violence or physical
abuse is strongly prohibited. It is a fact that the Prophet (PBUH) never beat any of
his wives, and told his followers that the best among them did not beat.
In case of severe conflict and hostility from the wife's side, the husband
should, according to the Qur'an (4th Sura, "The Women", verse 34) first reason
with her, then sleep apart from her, and finally, if all this fails, give her a slight slap
with his hands while avoiding her face, thus showing her symbolically the
seriousness of the situation.(13)
If a conflict between husband and wife cannot be solved by reconciliation,
two arbitrators, one from his and one from her side, have to be appointed in order
to make peace between them and if they fail, divorce can take place. A famous
Tradition of the Prophet (PBUH) says that "among lawful things, divorce is most
hated by Allah".(14)
After the husband has declared that his wife is divorced (Talaq), she has the
right to stay in the marital home during the prescribed waiting period (Idda) which
takes three monthly courses. During this time, the husband can reconcile with his
wife and reassume married life, or give her free. In case of a resumption of the
marriage, and a second divorce pronouncement by the husband, the same
procedure takes place. But after a third divorce pronouncement, the husband is no
longer allowed to return to his wife. Only after she has married another man, lived
with him for some time and then got divorced by him, she is allowed to return to
her first husband. (2nd Sura, verse 230).
The practice of pronouncing three divorces in one sitting as strongly
rejected by the Prophet (PBUH)(15), but unfortunately, later on, it was spread
gradually among Muslims (16)
When a husband divorces his wife, she keeps her marital gift and all other
gifts she received from him. Also, she is entitled to full accommodation during the
Idda period. If she is pregnant, she receives support until she gives birth.
After divorce has become effective, a woman is free to remarry a person of
her choice. Neither her ex-husband nor her relatives can prevent her from that.
There are three possibilities for a Muslim wife to get a divorce:
1. She can add certain stipulations to her marital contract under which she
would be entitled to seek divorce, as e.g. a second marriage of her husband.
Moreover, she can have the right to divorce delegated to herself, so that she could
be able to make use of it if one of the stipulations in her marriage contract is
violated, (Talaq al-Tafwid).(17)
2. Secondly, the wife has the right to ask for divorce by returning the
marital gifts to her husband. Khula).
3. Thirdly she can sue her husband for a divorce in case of serious violations,
for example when he is unable to fulfill his marital obligations, or for serious ill-
Thus Islam has given women the right to divorce acknowledging their
Concerning polygamy or rather polygyny, Islam has reduced the number of
wives a man can have at one time to four while in ancient Arabia it was unlimited.
Moreover, the husband is obliged to be able to deal equitable with all his wives,
what regards their food, housing, clothing, gifts, etc, and the division of his time
between them. As the Holy Qur'an states: (4th Sura: The Women, verse 3):
"If ye fear that ye shall not/ Be able to deal justly/ With the orphans,/ Marry
women of your choice,! Two, or three, or four,! But if ye fear that ye shall not! Be
able to deal justly (with them),! Then only one
Thus the permission to marry more than one wife was connected with the
support of orphans originating from the battles the early Muslim community of
Madinah had to give. Furthermore, in the Holy Book we read: (4:129):
"Ye are never able! To do justice! Between wives! Even if it is! Your ardent
Nowadays, polygny is not practiced very widely in Islamic countries. As
stated before, the permission to marry more than one woman is meant to solve
problems like a surplus of women after wars who cannot find husbands, severe
illness of the first wife, or her disability to bear children.
As mothers, Muslim women attain highest estimation in Islamic societies.
This is illustrated by the Prophet's (PBUH) famous saying: "Paradise lies under the
mother's feet". (related by Ahmed). He also demanded that a man should care for
his mother first. "A man asked the Messenger of Allah (...) who amongst his near
ones had the greatest right over him. The Holy Prophet replied: "Your mother".
He asked, "Then who is next?" The Holy Prophet replied: "Your mother". He
again asked then who is next? The Holy Prophet replied: "Your mother" He asked
"Then who is next". The Holy Prophet replied: "Your Father".
Disobedience to parents is a major sin, and the Holy Qur'an requires
believers to be good to them, especially when they are old, and never to approach
them. (17th Sura, "The Al-Israa", verses 23-24).
Family planning and birth regulation are permitted by Islamic Law.
Temporary contraceptive means are lawful for every married couple in mutual
agreement. Serious reasons such as weakness of the wife, diseases of the parents,
poverty and spacing of children make birth regulation permissible and even
Abortion, however, should never be used as a means of family planning but
is to be limited to cases where the mother's life is in danger, since in Islam, a
mother's life is more valuable than the life of a fetus.
Property and Inheritance rights of Muslim women are safeguarded by
The acknowledgement of women's property and inheritance rights by the
Quranic revelation brought about great improvements of the position of women in
Middle Eastern cultures.
A Muslim woman's property belongs to her alone and she can make use of it
independently without her husband's interference. At the same time, however, only
a man can be made responsible for maintaining his family and needy relatives,
while a woman does not have any financial obligations, even if she is richer than
her husband. Normally, she is provided for by a husband, a father, a son or a
brother. If she does not have any male relatives, the Muslim community or the
Islamic state is obliged to take care for her. Even if a wife works and earns money
or has property of her own, and her husband is jobless or disabled, she is not liable
to spend on him and their children. If she is ready to do so, it is counted as a charity
of hers. Thus absence of a woman's financial responsibilities is the reason for her
lesser share of inheritance in Islamic Law.
The Muslim Woman in Public Life
One of the most widely-spread prejudices about Islam is the idea that it imposes
total seclusion on its female adherents. On the contrary, in the history of early
Islam we find numerous examples of eminent women participating in public life, in
the spreading of Islam, and even in fighting against its adversaries. Muslim women
were participating in all acts of worship at the Prophet's mosque, working in trade
and agriculture, entertaining guests and taking care of war casualties. It is
important to stress that neither the Qur'an nor the Sunna prohibit a woman from
working in any lawful employment outside her home. But if she is married she has
to obtain her husband's consent. On the other hand, she can stipulate her right to
work in her marriage contract.
Despite of her work outside home she should not neglect her duties as a wife
and a mother.
According to the Islamic perception of human rights, women are entitled to
equal pay for equal work. (20)
Leading positions in both, public and private sectors can be held by Muslim
Concerning her political role, a Muslim woman has the right to vote.
Moreover she can be elected as member of parliament, or appointed as minister,
etc. Muslim jurists have derived a womans right to vote from the principle of
Bai'a, an oath of allegiance, which was given to the Prophet (PBUH) by men and
The principle of "Shura", consultation of the members of the "Umma", the
community of Muslims, relates to all political measures, and extends to women, too.
The multiple roles of Muslim women in public life are supported by Islamic
standards of behaviour and clothing that apply to both genders. (21)
Both males and females should avoid everything that could lead to sexual
relationships outside marriage. Decent ways of dressing and behaving help protect
women from molestation and sexual harassments, as well as from becoming victims
of commercial exploitation in advertising and the media.
3. Bridging The Gap Between Ideal And Reality
In the course of Islamic history, a widening gap between ideal law and the
reality of customary life began to develop, depriving Muslim women gradually of
many of their rights that had been granted to them by the Holy Qur'an and the
Sunna. This process resulted in the seclusion of Muslim women in many regions of
the Middle East and North Africa.
However, in more recent times, Muslim scholars and thinkers have been
trying to find solutions for the new challenges that are facing Islamic societies and
Muslim minorities in non-Islamic countries. With the help of new interpretations
(Ijtihad) done by qualified jurists while taking in account the great social and
economic changes of our contemporary world, the gap between ideal and reality of
Muslim women's situation can be bridged.
Diverse and often adverse living conditions of Muslim women in their
various native countries have their origins in social and cultural conditions, as well
as in popular traditions and beliefs.
Moreover, there still exist negative influences of developments caused by
colonialism and backwardness that have nothing in common with Islam.
It would be unfair to charge Islam with the results of all these negative
factors which have an antagonistic effect on the position of Muslim women.(22)
Nowadays, in most countries with a majority population of Muslims,
different legal systems are in use simultaneously: Besides Islamic Law we find local
and traditional customary law (`Urf), as well as European law. In many cases, local
customary law is detrimental to women, e.g. when it prevents them from owing or
Because of a lack of education resulting from poverty and backwardness,
Muslim women, the majority of which are living in Third World countries, are
unaware of the full range of rights Islam has given to them, and consequently,
unable to act according to them. The restoration of their rights can be extremely
difficult for women in traditionally male-dominated societies.
Therefore it is one of the duties of Muslim Non-Governmental
Organizations and Muslim Women's associations to stand up for the education of
Muslim women and girls, especially in rural areas and in poor urban quarters.
Inequality in access to education must be overcome, following the Islamic
principle that education is a moral duty for males and females.
Education will help Muslim women become aware of their rights granted to
them by the Qur'an and the authentic traditions.
Through awareness of their rights, women will be enabled to ask for them
and to strive for them.
There can be no doubt that only by raising their consciousness, women can
play active roles in sustainable societies.
At the same time, education will provide Muslim women with the skills
necessary to acquire decision-making positions. Muslim women need all help
available to reach full participation in the socio-economic development of their
countries thus eradicating poverty, and strengthening the family, which is the basis
of a healthy Umma.
Following the principles found in the Holy Qur'an and the Sunna of the
Prophet (PBUH), stable Islamic societies based on the sanctity of family ties, human
rights and women's rights will help realize the renaissance of the Islamic world.
Human rights including women's rights have been introduced by Islam
more than fourteen hundred years ago, long before they were adopted by Western
In trying to regain its former leading civilizational role, the Islamic world
has to make use of its authentic foundations: the Holy Qur'an and the Sunna of the
The Renaissance of the Islamic world cannot take place without finding
solutions to a number of problems including the position of women.
Islam as a universal religion which is applicable to all human beings and all
ages, provides the best answers to all challenges of the coming twenty-first century.
1. In : "Menschenliebe ist gr?sste Phylosophie", Article about Taslima Nasrin
published in: Neue Zeit, 1st May 1998, p. 37 (Austria). BBC London spoke of: "The
death command or Fatwa" concerning Salman Rushdie. In : BBC Arabic Service, News
in special English, Sunday 27/9/1998, at 12.40 hrs.
2. All quotations from the Holy Qur'an are taken from Qur'an English translation
of the meaning and commentary. Revised and edited by the Presidency of Islamic
Researchers, Ifta, Call and Guidance, King Fahd Holy Qur'an Complex. Al-Madinah al-
Munawarah, Saudi Arabia 1410 (1989/90).
3. Selim, Mohammad El-Sayed (Rd.), The Organization of the Islamic
Conference in a Changing World. Center for Political Research and Studies, Cairo
University, and Friedrich-Ebert Foundation, Cairo 1994.
The OIC's Cairo Declaration of Human Rights In Islam was preceded by the
"Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights" by the Islamic Council For Europe,
London 1981 which is the European representative of the OIC. See: Islamische
Menschenrechte-Rechte fr Muslime? IN: Meier, Andreas, Der politische Auftrag des
Islam. Wuppertal 1994, p. 517.
4. Ibid., p.236.
5. Abdalati, Hammudah, Islam in Focus. Islamic Teaching Center. World
Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, p.184.
6. Abedin, Saleha M., Women in Search of Equality, Development and Peace: A
Critical Analysis of the Platform for Action, Fourth World Conference on Women, and
the Islamic Perspective. In: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. Vol. 16, No.1,
Jan.1996, London, pp. 92-93.
7. The second greatest sin (after ascribing divinity to someone other than God), is
killing children out of fear that they will share one's food. (Reported by Al-Bukhari and
In: Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf: The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam. Int. Isl. Fed. of
Student Organ. Kuwait 1993, p. 229.
8. Toubia, Nahid, Female Genital Mutilation. A Call for Global Action. Women
Ink., New York 1993, pp.31-32.
9. Both, the late Grand Shaikh of Al-Azhar, Mahmoud Shaltout, and/the present
one, Dr. Mahmoud Sayed Al-Tantawi, spoke against Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).
10. Badawi, Jamal, Gender Equity in Islam. Basic Principles, American Trust
Publications. Plainfield, Indiana 1955, p. 23 and Note 11.
11. Abdalati, p.116.
12. Ibid., p.117.
13. Al-Qaradawi, p.205.
14. Reported by Abu Daoud, in : Al-Qaradawi, p.207.
15. Reported by Al-Nasa'i, in: Al-Qaradawi, p.217.
16. Engineer, Ali Asghar, The Rights of Women in Islam. London 1992, p.124.
He states that although the great jurists Abu Hanifa and Malik maintained that it was
Bid'a and therefore not permissible, and Ibn Hanbal concurred with this view, Al-Shafa'i
thought that it was permissible, and on page 124 he writes: "However, Imam Abu
Hanifah and Imam Malik maintain that permissible or not, once pronounced thrice in
one sitting the divorce would be valid and would result in talaq-I-battah (irrevocable
17. Engineer, p.139.
18. Reported by Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Abu Huraira. In:
Alfahim, Abdul Rahim, The 200 Hadith. 200 Sayings and Doings of the Prophet
Muhammad (PBUH). 3rd Ed. April 1989, Makka Printing and Inform. Establ. (Hadith
19. Waqfs, Ministry, Ministry of Information (Egypt), State Information Service,
Information, Education and Communication Center: Islam's Attitude Towards Family
Planning. Cairo 1994, p.65.
20. Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, Article 13. In: Selim, p.237,
21. See: Al-Qur'an: 24th Sura: "Light", verses 30-31, and 33th Sura: "The
Confederates", verse 59.
22. Irmgard Pinn/Mailes Wehener, Euro-Phantasien. Die islamische Frau aus
westlicher Sicht. Duisburg 1995, pp.6-7.