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Miqdad Bin Amr is reckoned among those companions of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) whose superior qualities, exaltation and excellence are admired by all Islamic Schools of thought. He had become the favorite of Allah and His Messenger (S.A.W.) for his spirit of faith and faithfulness. Once the Prophet (S.A.W.) said, "Allah has ordained me to love four persons because He Himself loves them." "And who are those four persons?" the Prophet was asked by the companions who were present there. "They are Ali, Miqdad, Salman and Abu Zar, "the Prophet (S.A.W.) replied.

The name of Miqdad is written in four ways in the books of history Miqdad Bin Amr Bahravi, Miqdad Bin 'Amr Kindie , Miqdad Bin Aswad Al Kindi AI Hazarmi and Miqdad Bin Al Aswad Qureshi Az-Zahri.

He was called 'Bahravi' for the native land of his forefathers was 'Bahra' But, according to some other annals 'Bahra' was the tribe to which Miqdad belonged. This was a Branch of another tribe called 'Quza'aa', lt. is stated that before the birth of Miqdad, someone of his tribe had murdered a man of another tribe. so being afraid of revenge Amr Bin Saalba, the father of Miqdad, leaving his native land went away to Hazar Maut in Yemen, Kindi was the ruling dynasty there, with whom 'Amr had the relation of friendship. He married a lady of that family and Miqdad was born with that wedlock. As he was born and brought up in Hazar Maut and in the tribe of Kindi, so he is named as Hazarmi and Kindi, In his young age Miqdad had an altercation with an influential man of the Kindi tribe, called Abu Shimr Bin Hajar Al Kindi. In this altercation

Abu Shimr was seriously injured by Miqdad who finding no other way escaped for Mecca, Seeing his boldness, courage and pleasing manners, Aswad-Bin-Abd-e-Yaghus of Mecca adopted him as his son and so Miqdad is also known as Al Aswad. Quraishi, Azzahri. He was also called 'Abel Aswad' (the father of Aswad). The prophet (S.A.W.) too, often would address him by this name.

Sometime after the arrival of Miqdad to Mecca, the voice of Islam was echoed. This was heard, besides others, by Miqdad also. He lost no time but directly went to the Prophet (S.A.W.) and accepted Islam without any hesitation. According to some historians Miqdad (R.A.A.) was one of those seven persons who accepted Islam first, just after Muhammad (S.A.W.) made the declaration of his Prophethood, Some others, however, say that when Miqdad accepted Islam the number of the Muslims was increased to more than seven. Yet in those days it was not an easy task to become a Muslim. Those who accepted Islam in those days were subjected to inhuman cruelties and tortures. Miqdad, who did not belong to that land and had no support of any tribe or family,was well aware of this situation. He knew well what would happen to him after accepting Islam but heedless to any consequence he boldly declared himself Muslim and became a victim of all kinds of tortures by the idolaters of the Quraish.

When the cruel treatment of the Quraish became quite unbearable, Miqdad was advised by the Prophet (S.A.W.) to migrate to Habsha with other 83 helpless Muslims. But after passing some time in Habsha, he came back to Mecca. It was the period when the Muslims were permitted to leave Mecca for Madina and they, one after another were migrating. Not withstanding the Prophet (S.A.W.) himself reached Madina, Miqdad could not do so because of some obstructions on his path, This has been stated by the historian Allama Ibne Aseer but some other historians like Ibne Saad, have mentioned that Miqdad had already reached Madina before the Prophet (S.A.W.) did. According to Ibne Aseer in the first year of Hijra a band of about two hundred idolaters of Mecca, under the leadership of Abu Sufyan (or of Akrama Bin Abu Jahl) went towards Madina to get information about the Prophet (S.A.W.) and the Muslims, Availing this chance Miqdad and Utba Bin Ghazwan too included themselves into this party with one plea or another. When the Prophet (S.A.W.) was informed of the coming of this party he sent a group of about sixty Muslims to check it, Seeing the Muslims the party of idolaters fled away but Miqdad and Utba came to the Muslims and thus they succeeded to reach Madina safely. This event is named in history as "The Skirmish of Rabigh."

During the initial stage of migration Miqdad had to face adverse days of poverty. When the Prophet (S.A.W.) became aware of this, he took the responsibility for the maintenance of Miqdad and two other poverty. stricken Muhajirs (migrant) like him, In this connection Miqdad says himself:

"I together with my two companions, had to face grievous days of poverty, We had nothing, not even a single piece of bread, to eat, Compelled by continuous starvation we approached some of the companions of the Prophet (S.A.W.) asking them to accept us as their dependents, But none could do so, because everyone had his own problems. At last we reached the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) who being aware of our plight took us to his house. In those days there were three or four goats in the house of the Prophet. He told us to live in his house and drink milk of those goats. Accordingly we would drink the milk and keep some of it in a pot for the Prophet (S.A.W.), who would come back late at night, would say salutation in a very low voice so that those who were sleeping might not be disturbed and then would go to the mosque and after returning from the mosque would drink the milk kept by us for him, One night the Satan misled me and supposing that the Prophet may not require to drink the milk because he must have taken something offered by the people where he had been, I drank the milk kept for him.

"But, after the pot of milk being emptied by me I began to think, "What have I done, if the Prophet (S.A.W.) has not taken anything outside then?" I was afraid of being cursed by the Prophet. In the meantime, the Prophet (S.A.W.) came back and after saying his prayer wanted to drink milk. Seeing the pot empty Muhammad (S.A.W,) looked up towards the sky. I was certain that he must curse the fellow who had emptied his pot of milk. But to my wonder the Prophet (S.A.W.) instead of cursing anybody simply said, '0 Allah, feed him who feeds me and let him drink who lets me drink.' Now, I rose in order to get some milk from one of the goats, if possible. Although I had no hope to get any milk but to my great wonder I found all the mammals of the four goats full of milk. With the name of Allah I began to milk the goats and within moments the pot was full of milk. I took it to the Prophet (S.A.W.) who asked me, 'Have you taken?, 'Please take it, i replied and he began to drink. After drinking some milk, he wanted to return me the pot which had still sufficient milk, I insisted the Prophet (S.A.W.) to drink some more milk. He took it again and drank enough of it but still there remained some milk in the pot, Thinking that the Prophet (S.A.W.) was satisfied now I took the rest of milk, I was wondered as well as very glad to see this and so began to laugh. I laughed so much that I fell down on the earth,"

"What is the matter, Abul Aswad," the Prophet (S.A.W.) asked, seeing me laughing, Then I narrated everything to him. Hearing this the Prophet (S.A.W.) said, "This is the Blessing and Mercy of Allah, if you would have awaked your two other companions, they too would have taken the milk to their best of satisfaction."

After sometime Miqdad started business and got prosperity, It is stated that one day he had been out in a lonely place to answer to the call of nature. There, while he was sitting, a rat came out of a hole with a golden dinar in its mouth. The rat left the dinar before Miqdad and went back, After a few moments it brought another dinar and leaving it before him again went back. In this way the rat brought seventeen dinars. Miqdad took all these dinars and approached direct Muhammad the Prophet (S.A.W.), When he narrated the event to him , the Prophet (S.A.W.) asked whether he had put his hand into the hole. Miqdad replied in the negative swearing in the name of Allah. Then the Prophet (S.A.W.)said that was no harm for him; he could take and utilize the money. Allah would give him prosperity as Zaba-ah, the wife of Miqdad says that Miqdad became a rich man while the seventeen dinars were not yet finished.

The Prophet (S.A.W.) granted him a plot of land in Bani Adeela, a locality in Madina. He was also given landed property in Jerf, a place about three miles away from Madina, where he was settled during the last days of his life, After the conquest of Khaiber he was also given a landed property there.

The battle of Badr occurred during the month of Ramadan in the second year of Hijra. Muhammad (S.A.W.) before starting for the battlefield had consultations with his companions. In this counsel first Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.A.) and Umar Farooq (R.A.A.) spoke one after the other and delivered encouraging Speeches. After them stood Miqdad and said:

" 0 Messenger of Allah! We are not like the followers of Musa, that we may say, you and your God should go and fight against the enemy and we should sit here.' We declare, let us go towards which Allah ordains you to go, By Allah, Who is the Lord of our life and Who has sent you with the Truth, we shall fight standing your right and left, front and back, By Allah, we shall be going on fighting till even an eye of ours is safe. We shall never desert you."

It was in this battle that the Muslims had not even sufficient arms to fight with, They had only 70 camels and 2 horses. One of the two horses was given to Miqdad and the other to Harisa Bin Saraqa Ansari. Harisa while drinking water in the battlefield was killed by an arrow of the enemy. After the martyrdom of Harisa, Miqdad was left as the only rider in Islamic Army while the enemy had a mounted force of about one hundred riders who were also well arm . Miqdad faced alone the mighty mounted force of the enemy. He was a skilled swordsman and a perfect archer. He had attained so much perfection and excellence in cavalry, archery and swords manship that, later on, he was counted equal to a thousand men.

In the Battle of Badr, his performances made the enemy terrified, Wherever he moved into the battlefield the groups of the enemy were pierced. Thus he created havoc for the enemy end fulfilled his promise made to the Prophet (S.A.W.).

Miqdad also showed his great courage, bravery and constancy in the battles of Uhud, Ahzab, Zi_Qard, etc.

There was a pasture in Ghaba, near Zinard It was a few miles away from Madina. One day in the month of Rabiul Awwal (6th Hijra)Ainia the son of Hisn Farazi of Mecca attacked that pasture and took away twenty camels of the Holy Prophet, killing Zar, the son of Abu Zar Ghifari. By chance two companions of the Prophet, Salma and Rabah Mowla riding on horses, appeared. Seeing what had happened, Rabah went to inform the Holy Prophet and Salma started throwing arrows towards the enemy. The enemy being compelled, fled away but before long came again with another band, so Salma's life was in danger, In the meantime Miqdad Bin Amr, Akhram Asadi and Abu Qatadah Ansari arrived from Madina, but Akhram was martyred by Abdul Rahman Farazi. Seeing this Abu Qatadah attacked Farazi, who was killed instantaneously, Now, there were only Miqdad, Abu Qatadah and Salma, who met the enemy with great courage, In the mean time some more companions of the Prophet (S.A.W.) reached there. This made the enemy to flee leaving all the camels of the Holy Prophet, they had captured. The Muslim Mujahids ran after them, After the sunset when they came back, they saw the Prophet (S.A.W.) himself present there with five. hundred men. The Prophet (S.A.W.) was much pleased with Salma, Abu Qatadah and Miqdad (R.A.A.).

After the demise of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), Miqdad took part in the wars of Syria and Egypt also during the reign of Umar Farooq, the second Caliph, In the battle of Yarmouk he showed great proficiency. Miqdad was a soldier in true sense of the word, as well as he was a fearless and frank man. According to 'Saheeh Bukhari' he was one of those companions of the Prophet who were appointed by the Prophet (S.A.W.) to execute the criminals.

Miqdad had not married for one reason or another for a long time. So one day Abdul Rahman Bin Auf asked, "Why do you not marry, Miqdad?" In reply to him Miqdad frankly asked, "Then why don't you marry to me your daughter?" This irritated Abdul Rahman Bin Auf and he scolded him, being enraged, Miqdad complained against him to the Holy Prophet. The Prophet (S.A.W.) consoling him said "Do not mind ,if anyone does not like to marry his daughter to you, I am ready to give in marriage to you my uncle's daughter.' And accordingly Zaba'ah the daughter of Zubair and the granddaughter of Abdul Muttalib was married to him. In this way Miqdad was related to the Prophet(S.A.W.).

The 9th year of Hijra is called in the history of Islam as the 'year of delegations,' because in that year delegations from every nook and corner of Arabia started to come and meet the Prophet (S.A.W.) for acceptance of Islam. In this connection a delegation from Bahra also came to Madina to meet the Prophet (S.A.W.). The members of the delegation having tribal relationship with Miqdad came straight to his place. Miqdad received them happily and managed to stay them comfortably. He prepared for them a rich Arabic Dish called "Heesh," which the delegates ate delightfully. Miqdad sent a cup of Heesh to Muhammad (S.A.W.) also, The Prophet took a portion of that and sent the rest back to Miqdad, Now it so happened that Miqdad would serve the same pot of heesh to his guests everyday, which they would eat to their satisfaction yet it would not be finished but remained as before, Seeing that Miqdad serves them everyday such a rich food the delegates asked, "We heard that you people take normally very simple food, but we are seeing, since the day we have come here, that you offer us everyday such a nice and rich food. How is that you can afford to it, Miqdad?"

Miqdad smiled and said, "This is not a credit for me my dear, but the credit goes to our guide, our Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)." And then he narrated actually what had happened.

Miqdad had the honor of participating in "Baiate Redwan" or the Solemn Oath which the Prophet (S.A.W.) had taken from his companions a year before the conquest of Mecca, he also had the honor of performing the 'Hajjatul Wida' or the last pilgrimage of the Holy Prophet.

After passing away of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), when the question of Caliphate arose in Saqeefat Banu Sa'da, Miqdad voted in favor of Ali (R.A.A.). But later on, seeing the verdict of the Muslims in general, he also accepted Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.A.) as the first Caliph of Islam.

Imam Muhammad Baqir says that Miqdad was one of those companions of the Prophet (S.A.W.), who after accepting Islam, was never inclined to have any misgiving about the truth of Islam. He was a Hafiz and would teach people the Qur'an, It is said that many people in Syria learnt the Holy Qur'an from him.

Miqdad was not only a gallant warrior but also a learned scholar. He never hesitated to ask and learn anything from the Prophet (S.A.W.). If sometime any companion of the Prophet would feel embarrassment in regard to ask any question redirect from the Holy Prophet, he would ask Miqdad to do so and he would do it without any hesitation. It is stated That once Ali also had to ask about a certain issue from the Prophet throught Miqdad . Miqdad while asking about an issue from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) would try to make the issue clear in its every aspect . As for example one day he asked,"O Messenger of Allah, if a disbeliever cuts off one of my hands with his sword, but when I want to kill him he claims to embrace Islam and utters Kalima, in that case what should I do? Should I kill him?"

"No" replied the Prophet (S.A.W.), "Now you cannot kill him."

"But why not, 0 Messenger of Allah," argued Miqdad, "as he uttered Kalima only when he had already committed the crime of cutting my hand?" "In spite of that you cannot kill him," said the Holy Prophet, 'because after his accepting Islam his blood too became as sacred as yours."

Miqdad (R.A.A,) had his own point of view on some issues, According to 'Musnad of Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal (R.A.A.) one day, while Miqdad was sitting with some other persons, a man came and addressing Miqdad said, "Your two eyes are very respectable and blessed that they have seen the Messenger of Allah, Had I been in those days and seen the Prophet (S.A.W.) with my own eyes!'

Hearing this Miqdad was irritated and enraged. But the people who were present there could not understand the cause of his being irritated, Miqdad, however, explained himself and said, "He has no right to say such thing as why Allah did not send him to this world in a particular age, It is Allah's wish that sends anybody when He thinks it fit. Nobody has the right to object. Moreover, does this fellow know that if he would have been during the Prophet's age, he would have embraced Islam, By Allah, I know many persons who in spite of being in that period and seeing the Prophet (S.A.Q.) more than thousand times did not embrace Islam, rather, died as disblievers, It was not easy to accept Islam it those days. So he should thank Allah that be is born as a Muslim "

Miqdad violently hated flattery and insincere praise. Once during the days of Usman caliphate , a man came to the Caliph and started to praise him falsely .

Miqdad was also present there. He caused not tolerate his flattery so he began to throw sand on the face of the flatterer. Seeing this Usman was much surprised and he asked, 'What are you doing, Miqdad?" "I am doing what the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) has instructed,' said Miqdad, "The Prophet of Allah has instructed that whenever you find any flatterer throw dust on his face."

Miqdad, during his last days, had settled himself in Jerf, three miles away from Madina city, where he had been given a plot of land by the Prophet (S.A.W.), He was a man of huge appearance and during his last days his stomach raised abnormally. So one of his slaves who was thought to be a physician performed a surgery in order to treat his ailment, But his operation proved to be unsuccessful and he died in the '33rd years of Hijra. At that time he was 70 years old. His body was brought to Madina where the third Caliph Usman Bin Affan(R.A.A.) led the Salat-e-Janaza (Funeral Prayers) and thousands of Muslim's with tears in eyes laid him to rest in 'Jannatul-Baqie' the famous graveyard in Madina. (Radia Allahu Ta'ala Anhu).

 
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