THE MOSQUES OF EGYPT
THE EVOLUTION OF MUSLIM ARCHITECTURE IN EGYPT
4.THE AIYUBID PERIOD, 567 - 648 H. (1171-1250 A.D.) : The Aiyubids took over the government of Egypt in 567 H. (1171), and established a ruling dynasty in it. From the start, their rule proved to be one of fierce fighting with the Crusaders. Their attention was therefore directed towards the construction of military buildings. Thus they founded the Citadel, and extended the walls of Cairo. Their preoccupation with wars therefore explains the scarcity of religious buildings due to them. They also endeavoured to overcome the Shi'a rite of the Fatimids by founding colleges to teach the principles of the four Muslim rites. None of these colleges has survived except remains of the Kamiliya Madrasa, built in 622 H. (1225), which consisted of two iwans facing each other, and remains of the Salihiya Madrasa, founded by as-Salih Negm ad-Din Aiyub in 640 H. (1242), which was reserved for teaching the said four rites. This madrasa was not of the cruciform plan type; it was in fact composed of two madrasas, each of which contained two iwans, facing each other. Stalactite pendentives supporting large domes begin to appear, with an increase in the number of the tiers of niches. Only two minarets of this period still exist. These are the minarets of the Salihiya Madrasa and the Zawiyat al-Hunud; they are considered good examples of the minarets built towards the end of the seventh century H. (end of 13th century A.D.). Stucco decoration and fine geometrical woodwork continued to progress in this period. Naskhi inscriptions also came into use and evolved, side by side with Kufic inscriptions.