THE MOSQUES OF EGYPT
THE EVOLUTION OF MUSLIM ARCHITECTURE IN EGYPT
6.THE OTTOMAN PERIOD, 923 - 1220 H. (1517-1805 A.D.) : As soon as Mamluk rule came to an end, owing to the victory of Sultan Selim in 923 H. (1517), Muslim architecture experienced a crisis, ceasing to progress and deteriorating in quality, lacking the presence and touch of clever craftsmen and artists, for these were collected by Sultan Selim and sent to Constantinople. This fact resulted in the loss of the features which characterised Muslim architecture in Egypt. Moreover, it underwent Byzantine influence, brought in by the new conqueror. The Ottoman period has however left us a number of mosques related, to a certain extent, to those of Constantinople. The first example of these mosques is that of Sulayman Pasha, founded at the Citadel in 935 H. (1528). This was followed by the Mosque of Sinan Pasha at Bulaq and those of Malika Safiya and Abu adh-Dhahab, each of which comprises a large plain dome, covering the mosque, and a cylindrical minaret ending with a conical top, except that the minaret of the Mosque of Muhammad Abu adh-Dhahab in unlike any of the Turkish minarets of that period. Besides that, we find that some of the mosques built during this period had adopted many features from Mamluk architecture, in their minarets, their faades and in their internal details, such as coloured marble dadoes and richly decorated ceilings, etc., as may be observed in Mamluk mosques. An innovation, however, appears in the Ottoman period, viz: the lining of internal walls with tiles of faience with floral designs and the domes with plain green tiles.