THE MOSQUES OF EGYPT
4.THE AIYUBID PERIOD, 567- 648H.(1171- 1250 A.D.) .
11- THE MOSQUE OF SULTAN AS- SALIH NEGM AD- DIN (THE SALIHIYA MADRASA) 641H.(1243/44) . THIS MADRASA was built by as- Salih Negm ad- Din Aiyub, seventh Aiyubid Sultan of Egypt. It was built on part of the site of the eastern Fatimid palace, and was completed in 641H. (1243/44). It consisted of two blocks divided by a street. All traces of the southern block have disappereared, except the faade, and its site is now occupied by later buildings. Of the northern block, the western iwan, covered with a tunnel- vault, is still intatct. Each of the two blocks had two iwans facing each other, one to the east and the other to the west, and a row of cells on each side. The two blocks were separated by a street, at the west end of which was the archway. This archway is in the centre of the faade, and above it is the minaret. This faade still retains its architectural details; on both sides of the entrance, one observes a series of shallow panels, in the lower part of which are windows with a fine variety of joggled lintels, with relieving arches of various forms. The appearance of windows, at such a low level, is seen for the first time in this mosque. Formerly, they were in the upper part of the faade, as may be observed in the mosques of 'Amr, Ibn Tulun, etc. Most of the decoration of the entrance is derived from the faade of al- Aqmar mosque and as- Salih Tala'i'. The foundation date, 641H.(1243/44) , is inscribed in the middle of an arched panel above the archway. The minaret, which rises over the archway, begins as a square shaft and later on becomes octagonal. The sides of this octagon are decorated with little panels with shell- like hoods and multifoil arched openings. The octagonal part is crowned with a ribbed dome, the lower part of which is again decorated with multifoil openings, on top of which are stalctites. This minaret is typical of most of those which were built about the end of the seventh and beginning of the eighth centuries H. (XIII- XIV A.D.). A great development took place in minaret design after this, which culminated in the Mamluk period. Plate 35.